Are the right cybersecurity resources in place on the federal level?

| April 26, 2016

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Effective cybersecurity efforts rely on a wide range of moving parts coming together and working in concert. Businesses and government agencies must take the initiative and implement security systems and protocols that protect their digital assets and defend against unwanted intrusions. Organizations must also find opportunities for collaboration and cooperate in instances where sharing information about attempted or successful breaches helps all parties involved. They must also work with federal and state governments to coordinate their efforts and draw on available information and resources as appropriate.

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Work From Home: Cyber Security During Covid-19

Article | April 14, 2020

COVID-19 has significantly affected individuals and organizations globally. Till this time more than 1.7 million people in 210 countries have bore the brunt of this mysterious virus. While this crisis is unparalleled to the past crises that have shaken the world and had lasting impacts on different businesses, economies and societies but the one domain that had remained resilient through all the past crises and is going solid in COVID-19 as well is Cyber security. While most of the sectors globally have been affected, Cybersecurity’s importance to organizations, consumers and home users have not only remained strong but have been increased drastically.

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MERGING AND SORTING FILES IN LINUX: EASIER THAN YOU THINK

Article | November 24, 2020

There are several reasons to choose Linux over other operating systems such as Windows and macOS. Linux is an open-source, secure, and very lightweight operating system consuming minimal system resources. It also has huge community support and has a ton of distros (variants) to choose from. While we have already posted a bunch of articles on simple file handling methods in Linux, sending email from the terminal, and more, we are going to walk you through the simple yet efficient process of merging and sorting files in Linux. Just like with any other operation in Linux, there are several ways you can sort and merge the files in Linux. Choosing which method to use solely depends on the user and based on what needs to be accomplished. In this article, we will show you some easy yet powerful file sorting and merging methods in Linux while pointing out the differences and importance of each method. Cat Cat is one of the easiest and simple commands in Linux that can combine multiple files into one. All you have to do is list all the files that you wish to merge into a single file along with the new file name you wish to create. If a file with the name of the final output already exists, then it will be overwritten by the one being created. Here is a very simple implementation of cat command. $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 > Newfile However, if you wish to append information from multiple files into an already existing file, you can use ">>" instead of ">." Below is an example $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 >> Newfile The cat command can also be used in many ways. It is also one of the most flexible and simple ways of reading the content of the file. To view the content of a file called file1, simply use the below command. $cat file1 Join Join is another command to merge the data of multiple files. While it is as easy and simple as the cat command is, it has a catch. Unlike cat, join cannot just simple combine the data of multiple files. Instead, the command allows users to merge the content of multiple files based on a common field. For instance, consider that two files need to be combined. One file contains names, whereas the other file contains IDs, and the join command can be used to combine both these files in a way that the names and their corresponding IDs appear in the same line. However, users need to make sure that the data in both these files have the common key field with which they will be joined. There are several reasons to choose Linux over other operating systems such as Windows and macOS. Linux is an open-source, secure, and very lightweight operating system consuming minimal system resources. It also has huge community support and has a ton of distros (variants) to choose from. While we have already posted a bunch of articles on simple file handling methods in Linux, sending email from the terminal, and more, we are going to walk you through the simple yet efficient process of merging and sorting files in Linux. Just like with any other operation in Linux, there are several ways you can sort and merge the files in Linux. Choosing which method to use solely depends on the user and based on what needs to be accomplished. In this article, we will show you some easy yet powerful file sorting and merging methods in Linux while pointing out the differences and importance of each method. azure linux Shutterstock Cat Cat is one of the easiest and simple commands in Linux that can combine multiple files into one. All you have to do is list all the files that you wish to merge into a single file along with the new file name you wish to create. If a file with the name of the final output already exists, then it will be overwritten by the one being created. Here is a very simple implementation of cat command. $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 > Newfile However, if you wish to append information from multiple files into an already existing file, you can use ">>" instead of ">." Below is an example $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 >> Newfile The cat command can also be used in many ways. It is also one of the most flexible and simple ways of reading the content of the file. To view the content of a file called file1, simply use the below command. $cat file1 Join Join is another command to merge the data of multiple files. While it is as easy and simple as the cat command is, it has a catch. Unlike cat, join cannot just simple combine the data of multiple files. Instead, the command allows users to merge the content of multiple files based on a common field. For instance, consider that two files need to be combined. One file contains names, whereas the other file contains IDs, and the join command can be used to combine both these files in a way that the names and their corresponding IDs appear in the same line. However, users need to make sure that the data in both these files have the common key field with which they will be joined. Syntax $join [OPTION] FILE1 FILE2 Example: Assume file1.txt contains ... 1 Aarav 2 Aashi 3 Sukesh And, file2.txt contains ... 1 101 2 102 3 103 The command ... $ join file1.txt file2.txt will result in: 1 Aarav 101 2 Aashi 102 3 Sukesh 103 Note that by default, the join command takes the first column as the key to join multiple files. Also, if you wish to store the final data of the two files joined into another file, you can use this command: $ cat file1.txt file2.txt > result.txt Paste The paste command is used to join multiple files horizontally by performing parallel merging. The command outputs the lines from each file specified, separated by a tab as a delimiter by default to the standard output. Assume there is a file called numbers.txt containing numbers from 1 to 4. And there are another two files called countries.txt and capital.txt containing four countries and their corresponding capitals, respectively. The command below will join the information of these three files and will be separated by a tab space as a delimiter. $ paste numbers.txt countries.txt capital.txt However, you can also specify any delimiter by adding a delimiter option to the above command. For example, if we need the delimited to be "-" you can use this command: $ paste -d “-” numbers.txt countries.txt capital.txt Sort The sort command in Linux, as the name suggests, is used to sort a file as well as arrange the records in a particular order. Sort can also be paired with multiple other Linux commands such as cat by simply joining the two commands using a pipe "|" symbol. For instance, if you wish to merge multiple files, sort them alphabetically and store them in another file, you can use this command: $ cat file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt | sort > finalfile.txt There are several reasons to choose Linux over other operating systems such as Windows and macOS. Linux is an open-source, secure, and very lightweight operating system consuming minimal system resources. It also has huge community support and has a ton of distros (variants) to choose from. While we have already posted a bunch of articles on simple file handling methods in Linux, sending email from the terminal, and more, we are going to walk you through the simple yet efficient process of merging and sorting files in Linux. Just like with any other operation in Linux, there are several ways you can sort and merge the files in Linux. Choosing which method to use solely depends on the user and based on what needs to be accomplished. In this article, we will show you some easy yet powerful file sorting and merging methods in Linux while pointing out the differences and importance of each method. azure linux Shutterstock Cat Cat is one of the easiest and simple commands in Linux that can combine multiple files into one. All you have to do is list all the files that you wish to merge into a single file along with the new file name you wish to create. If a file with the name of the final output already exists, then it will be overwritten by the one being created. Here is a very simple implementation of cat command. $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 > Newfile However, if you wish to append information from multiple files into an already existing file, you can use ">>" instead of ">." Below is an example $ cat file1 file2 file3 file4 >> Newfile The cat command can also be used in many ways. It is also one of the most flexible and simple ways of reading the content of the file. To view the content of a file called file1, simply use the below command. $cat file1 Join Join is another command to merge the data of multiple files. While it is as easy and simple as the cat command is, it has a catch. Unlike cat, join cannot just simple combine the data of multiple files. Instead, the command allows users to merge the content of multiple files based on a common field. For instance, consider that two files need to be combined. One file contains names, whereas the other file contains IDs, and the join command can be used to combine both these files in a way that the names and their corresponding IDs appear in the same line. However, users need to make sure that the data in both these files have the common key field with which they will be joined. Syntax $join [OPTION] FILE1 FILE2 Example: Assume file1.txt contains ... 1 Aarav 2 Aashi 3 Sukesh And, file2.txt contains ... 1 101 2 102 3 103 The command ... $ join file1.txt file2.txt will result in: 1 Aarav 101 2 Aashi 102 3 Sukesh 103 Note that by default, the join command takes the first column as the key to join multiple files. Also, if you wish to store the final data of the two files joined into another file, you can use this command: $ cat file1.txt file2.txt > result.txt Paste The paste command is used to join multiple files horizontally by performing parallel merging. The command outputs the lines from each file specified, separated by a tab as a delimiter by default to the standard output. Assume there is a file called numbers.txt containing numbers from 1 to 4. And there are another two files called countries.txt and capital.txt containing four countries and their corresponding capitals, respectively. The command below will join the information of these three files and will be separated by a tab space as a delimiter. $ paste numbers.txt countries.txt capital.txt However, you can also specify any delimiter by adding a delimiter option to the above command. For example, if we need the delimited to be "-" you can use this command: $ paste -d “-” numbers.txt countries.txt capital.txt There are several other options available for the paste command, and more information can be found here. Sort The sort command in Linux, as the name suggests, is used to sort a file as well as arrange the records in a particular order. Sort can also be paired with multiple other Linux commands such as cat by simply joining the two commands using a pipe "|" symbol. For instance, if you wish to merge multiple files, sort them alphabetically and store them in another file, you can use this command: $ cat file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt | sort > finalfile.txt The above command is going to merge the files, sort the overall content, and then store it in the finalfile.txt You can also use the sort command to simply sort a single file containing information: $ sort file.txt The command above does not change or modify the data in file.txt and is, therefore, just for displaying the sorted data on the console. There are several other ways of merging and sorting files and data in the Linux operating system. What makes Linux unique is its ability to pair up multiple commands to achieve its purpose. Once users start to make themselves acquainted with these commands, it can save a lot of time and effort while performing tasks with more precision and efficiency.

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Information Security Management System to Protect Information Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability

Article | June 18, 2021

In this modern world of technology, ensuring information security is very important for the smooth running of any organization. Unfortunately, there are many information/cyber security threats, including malware, ransom ware, emotet, denial of service, man in the middle, phishing, SQL injection, and password attacks. Whatever your business is, no doubt, it can collapse your business and your dreams. However, the severity of its after-effects depends upon the type of business you do. As information security threat has become a hurdle for all organizations, companies must implement an effective information security management system. In 2019 alone, the total number of breaches was 1473. It is increasing every year as businesses are doing digital transformation widely. Phishing is the most damaging and widespread threat to businesses, accounting for 90% of organizations' breaches. This article lets you understand what ISMS is and how it can be effectively implemented in your organization. Information Security Management System (ISMS) According to ISO/IEC 27001, Information Security Management System (ISMS) refers to various procedures, policies, and guidelines to manage and protect organizations' information assets. In addition, the system also comprises various other associated resources and activities frameworks for information security management. Organizations are jointly responsible for maintaining information security. People responsible for security in an organization ensure that all employees diligently meet all policies, guidelines, and other objectives regarding protecting information. Also, they safeguard all assets of the organization from external cyber threats and attacks. The goal and objective of the system are to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of assets from all threats and vulnerabilities. Effectively implementing an information security management system in your organization avoids the possibility of leaking personal, sensitive, and confidential data and getting exposed to harmful hands. The step-by-step implementation of ISMS includes the process of designing, implementing, managing, and maintaining it. Implementing ISMS in Organizations The standard for establishing and maintaining an information security management system in any organization is ISO 27001. However, as the standard has broad building blocks in designing and implementing ISMS, organizations can shape it according to their requirements. Effectively implementing ISMS in organizations in compliance with ISO 27001 lets you enjoy significant benefits. However, an in-depth implementation and training process has to be ensured to realize these benefits comprehensively. Therefore, let us look into how an information security management system can be successfully implemented in your organization. Identification The first step in implementing ISMS is identifying the assets vulnerable to security threats and determining their value to your organization. In this process, devices and various types of data are listed according to their relative importance. Assets can be divided across three dimensions: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. It will allow you to give a rating to your assets according to their sensitivity and importance to the company. Confidentiality is ensuring that the assets are accessed by authorized persons only. Integrity means ensuring that the data and information to be secured are complete, correct, and safeguarded thoroughly. Availability is ensuring that the protected information is available to the authorized persons when they require it. Policies and Procedures and Approval from the Management In this step, you will have to create policies and procedures based on the insights you got from the first step. It is said to be the riskiest step as it will enforce new behaviors in your organization. Rules and regulations will be set for all the employees in this step. Therefore, it becomes the riskiest step as people always resist accepting and following the changes. You also should get the management approval once the policies are written. Risk Assessment Risk assessment is an integral part of implementing an Information Security Management System. Risk assessment allows you to provide values to your assets and realize which asset needs utmost care. For example, a competitor, an insider, or a cybercriminal group may want to compromise your information and steal your information. With a simple brainstorming session, you can realize and identify various potential sources of risk and potential damage. A well-documented risk assessment plan and methodology will make the process error-free. Risk Treatment In this step, you will have to implement the risk assessment plan you defined in the previous step. It is a time-consuming process, especially for larger organizations. This process is to get a clear picture of both internal and external dangers that can happen to the information in your organization. The process of risk treatment also will help you to reduce the risks, which are not acceptable. Additionally, you may have to create a detailed report comprising all the steps you took during the risk assessment and treatment phase in this step. Training If you want effectively implement all the policies and procedures, providing training to employees is necessary. To make people perform as expected, educating your personnel about the necessity of implementing an information security management system is crucial. The most common reason for the failure of security management failure is the absence of this program. Implementing ISMS Once policies and procedures are written, and necessary training is provided to all employees, you can get into the actual process of implementing it in your organization. Then, as all the employees follow the new set of rules and regulations, you can start evaluating the system's effectiveness. Monitoring and Auditing Here you check whether the objectives set were being met or not. If not, you may take corrective and preventive actions. In addition, as part of auditing, you also ensure all employees are following what was being implemented in the information security management system. This is because people may likely follow wrong things without the awareness that they are doing something wrong. In that case, disciplinary actions have to be taken to prevent and correct it. Here you make sure and ensure all the controls are working as you expected. Management Review The final step in the process of implementing an information security management system is management review. In this step, you work with the senior management to understand your ISMS is achieving the goals. You also utilize this step to set future goals in terms of your security strategy. Once the implementation and review are completed successfully, the organization can apply for certification to ensure the best information security management practices. Summing UP Organizations benefit from implementing and certifying their information security management system. The organization has defined and implemented a management system by building awareness, training employees, applying the proper security measures, and executing a systematic approach to information security management. Thus implementation has the following benefits: Minimized risk of information loss. The increased trust of customers in the company as the company is ISO/IEC 27001 certified. Developed competencies and awareness about information security among all employees The organization meets various regulatory requirements. Frequently Asked questions What are the three principles of information security? Confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) are the three main principles and objectives of information security. These are the fundamental principles and the heart of information security. How does information security management work? Information security management works on five pillars. The five pillars are assessment, detection, reaction, documentation, and prevention. Effective implementation of these pillars determines the success of the information security management in your company. What are the challenges in information security management? Challenges in information security management in your company can be the following: You can’t identify your most critical data Policies aren’t in place for protecting sensitive information. Employees aren’t trained in company policies. Technology isn’t implemented for your policies. You can’t limit vendor access to sensitive information.

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Zero Trust – Demystified

Article | July 29, 2020

1. Zero Trust – Demystified Everyone seems to be talking about Zero Trust in the security world at the moment. Unfortunately there seems to be multiple definitions of this depending on which vendor you ask. To help others understand what Zero Trust is, this white paper covers the key aspects of a Zero Trust model. 1.1. What is Zero Trust Zero Trust is a philosophy and a related architecture to implement this way of thinking founded by John Kindervag in 2010. What it isn’t, is a particular technology! There are three key components to a Zero Trust model: 1. User / Application authentication – we must authenticate the user or the application (in cases where applications are requesting automated access) irrefutably to ensure that the entity requesting access is indeed that entity 2. Device authentication – just authenticating the user / application is not enough. We must authenticate the device requesting access as well 3. Trust – access is then granted once the user / application and device is irrefutably authenticated. Essentially, the framework dictates that we cannot trust anything inside or outside your perimeters. The zero trust model operates on the principle of 'never trust, always verify’. It effectively assumes that the perimeter is dead and we can no longer operate on the idea of establishing a perimeter and expecting a lower level of security inside the perimeter as everything inside is trusted. This has unfortunately proven true in multiple attacks as attackers simply enter the perimeter through trusted connections via tactics such as phishing attacks. 1.2. Enforcing the control plane In order to adequately implement Zero Trust, one must enforce and leverage distributed policy enforcement as far toward the network edge as possible. This basically means that granular authentication and authorisation controls are enforced as far away from the data as possible which in most cases tends to be the device the user is using to access the data. So in essence, the user and device are both untrusted until both are authenticated after which very granular role based access controls are enforced. In order to achieve the above, a control plane must be implemented that can coordinate and configure access to data. This control plane is technology agnostic. It simply needs to perform the function described above. Requests for access to protected resources are first made through the control plane, where both the device and user must be authenticated and authorised. Fine-grained policy can be applied at this layer, perhaps based on role in the organization, time of day, or type of device. Access to more secure resources can additionally mandate stronger authentication. Once the control plane has decided that the request will be allowed, it dynamically configures the data plane to accept traffic from that client (and that client only). In addition, it can coordinate the details of an encrypted tunnel between the requestor and the resource to prevent traffic from being ‘sniffed on the wire’. 1.3. Components of Zero Trust and the Control Plane Enforcing a Zero Trust model and the associated control plan that instructs the data plane to accept traffic from that client upon authentication requires some key components for the model to operate. The first and most fundamental is micro-segmentation and granular perimeter enforcement based on: Users Their locations Their devices and its security posture Their Behaviour Their Context and other data The above aspects are used to determine whether to trust a user, machine or application seeking access to a particular part of the enterprise. In this case, the micro-segmentation technology essentially becomes the control plane. Per the above section, encryption on the wire is a key component of Zero Trust. For any micro-segmentation technology to be an effective control plane, it must: Enforce traffic encryption between endpoints Authenticate the user and machine based on their identity and not the network segment they are coming from. 1.4. Zero Trust Technologies As stated earlier, Zero Trust is an architecture. Other than micro-segmentation, the following key technologies and processes are required to implement Zero Trust: Multifactor authentication – to enforce strong authentication Identity and Access Management – to irrefutably authenticate the user / application and the device User and network behaviour analytics – to understand the relative behaviours of the user and the network they are coming from and highlight any unusual behaviour compared to a pre-established baseline which may indicate a compromised identity Endpoint security – to ensure that the endpoint itself is clean and will not act as a conduit for an attacker to gain unauthorised access to data Encryption – to prevent ‘sniffing of traffic on the wire’ Scoring – establishing a ‘score’ based on the perimeters above that will then determine whether access can be granted or not Apart from the above key components, the following are needed as well: File system permissions – needed in order to implement role based access controls Auditing and logging – to provide monitoring capabilities in case unauthorised access is achieved Granular role based access controls – to ensure access is on a ‘need to know basis only’ Supporting processes – all of the above needs to be supported by adequate operational procedures, processes and a conducive security framework so that the model operates as intended Mindset and organisational change management – since Zero Trust is a shift in security thinking, a mindset change managed by robust change management is required to ensure the successful implementation of Zero Trust in an organisation. 1.5. Challenges with Zero Trust So Zero Trust sounds pretty awesome, right? So why haven’t organisations adopted it fully? As with any new technology or philosophy, there are always adoption challenges. Zero Trust is no different. At a high level, the key challenges in my experience are: Change resistance – Zero Trust is a fundamental shift in the way security is implemented. As a result, there is resistance from many who are simply used to the traditional perimeter based security model Technology focus as opposed to strategy focus – since Zero Trust is a model that will impact the entire enterprise, it requires careful planning and a strategy to implement this. Many are still approaching security from the angle that if we throw enough technology at it, it will be fine. Unfortunately, this thinking is what will destroy the key principles of Zero Trust Legacy systems and environments – legacy systems and environments that we still need for a variety of reasons were built around the traditional perimeter based security model. Changing them may not be easy and in some cases may stop these systems from operating Time and cost – Zero Trust is an enterprise wide initiative. As such, it requires time and investment, both of which may be scarce in an organisation. 1.6. Suggested Approach to Zero Trust Having discussed some challenges to adopting a Zero Trust model above, let’s focus on an approach that may allow an organisation to implement a Zero Trust model successfully: 1. Take a multi-year and multi-phased approach – Zero Trust takes time to implement. Take your time and phase the project out to spread the investment over a few financial years 2. Determine an overall strategy and start from there – since Zero Trust impacts the entire enterprise, a well-crafted strategy is critical to ensure success. A suggested, phased approach is: a. Cloud environments, new systems and digital transformation are good places to start – these tend to be greenfield and should be more conducive to a new security model b. Ensure zero trust is built into new systems, and upgrades or changes – build Zero Trust by design, not by retrofit. As legacy systems are changed or retired, a Zero Trust model should be part of the new deployment strategy c. Engage a robust change management program – mindset adjustment through good change management 3. Take a risk and business focus – this will allow you to focus on protecting critical information assets and justify the investments based on ROI and risk mitigation 4. Ensure maintenance and management of the new environment – as with everything, ensure your new Zero Trust deployment is well maintained and managed and does not degrade over time. To summarise, Zero Trust is a security philosophy and architecture that will change the way traditional perimeter based security is deployed. A key component of it is the control plane that instructs the data plane to provide access to data. Zero Trust dictates that access can only be granted once the user / application and device are irrefutably authenticated and even then this access is provided on a ‘need to know’ basis only. Micro-segmentation is a key technology component of Zero Trust implementation and this paper has stated other key technology components and processes that are needed to implement Zero Trust adequately. This paper has discussed some of the challenges with implementing Zero Trust which include change resistance as well as legacy systems. The paper then provided an approach to implementing Zero Trust which included taking a phased approach based on a sound strategy underpinned by a risk and business focused approach.

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Spotlight

eLearnSecurity

eLearnSecurity is the company that has innovated the IT Security training market through high quality e-learning training courses paired with the most advanced virtual labs in the world. eLearnSecurity is not just a content producer but an engineer-centric company which puts innovation at the center of every work day.

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