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. https://informationsecurity.report/Resources/Whitepapers/1bebb24e-0ec8-4a2d-92e9-7f44dde75ed6_CyberThrea_wp.pdf
whitepaper
CYBER THREATS TO THE BIOENGINEERING SUPPLY CHAIN
The Bioengineering supply chain begins with the acquisition of either a physical genetic sample or an existing data record, which could be downloaded from a repository such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genbank FTP website. This data is sequenced, stored, analyzed and disseminated on various platforms to include Local Area Networks and cloud services (2018, Bajema). Universities, pharmaceutical companies, the genomic sequencing industry and genetic testing companies rely on the availability of this data. While machines are programmed with binary code to include 0s and 1s, in biology, genetic code relies on As (adenine), Cs (cytosine), Gs (guanine) and Ts (thymine). Data stored in either form may be vulnerable to theft, sabotage or manipulation by adversaries. DOWNLOAD